More information on the EDGE Gymnosperm project here https://www.edgeofexistence.org. (2017) state that "recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks in whitebark pine forests have been extensive and severe" and that further outbreaks are likely as winter minimum temperatures become warmer, allowing the pine beetle to invade areas where it was formerly excluded by severe winter cold. A Pacific Coast Perspective. Despite being over a century old, they are generally accurate, and are illustrated with some remarkable photographs and lithographs. It is located within the northern Rocky Mountains, in areas of northwestern Wyoming, southwestern Montana, and eastern Idaho, and is about 22 million acres. Hybrids with P. flexilis have been reported on the Rocky Mountain Front in Montana, but are rare and infertile (Ericson 1965). Whitebark pine. The whitebark pine is typically the highest-elevation pine tree found in these mountain ranges and often marks the tree line. It is confined to dry, exposed sites at timberline. Whitebark Pine occurs in subalpine and timberline zones from west-central British Columbia east to west-central Alberta and south to central Idaho, southwestern Wyoming, and southern California (Murray, 2005; Ward et al., 2006). White pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), an introduced fungal disease, has decimated formerly extensive stands of this and certain other white pines. Forcella, Frank. [935] 19. Thus, it is often found as krummholz, trees growing close to the ground that have been dwarfed by exposure. It shares the common name "creeping pine" with several other plants. 2017). Pinus cembroides Newb. Moreover, since the whitebark pine's cones do not open, seed hoarding and caching by the nutcracker and related corvids (e.g., jays) constitute the only reproductive mechanism available to this pine (Tomback et al. This series of volumes, privately printed, provides some of the most engaging descriptions of conifers ever published. Earle, 2009.09.25]. The blister rust has also devastated the commercially valuable western white pine in these areas and made serious inroads in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) populations as well. AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION: Johnson, Kathleen A. [as of? Fish and Wildlife Service estimated that beetles had killed whitebark pines across 500,000 acres (200,000 ha) in the West, while in 2009, beetles were estimated to have killed trees on 800,000 acres (320,000 ha), the most since record-keeping began. This species is native to Europe and Asia, ranging from Scotland, Ireland and Portugal in the west, east to eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains, and north to … In response to the ongoing decline of the tree throughout its range, the Whitebark Pine Ecosystem Foundation was formed. Whitebark pine, whitestem, alpine whitebark, pitch, scrub or creeping pine (Peattie 1950); white pine (Little 1980); pine à blanche écorce (Kral 1993). Mortality has been especially severe in portions of the range north of 45° latitude or west of 120° longitude (Hoff et al. The species account at Threatened Conifers of the World. Whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis, is a critically important tree species in subalpine and alpine western ecosystems and a candidate for listing under the Endangered Species Act. Seeds obovoid, 7-11 mm long, brown, wingless, edible. National Whitebark Pine Summit Strategic Planning for Range-wide Restoration. A "ghost forest" in the Olympic Mountains of Washington. Luckman, B. H. 2006. Pinus flexilis. Data sources include (1) polygons generated by USGS (1999), (2) point data (n=343) sourced from GBIF (2019), (3) point data from Conifers of the World (n=122, accessed 2019.07.15), and (4) point data representing my observations of the species in habitat (n=96). For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. Whitebark Pine occurs in subalpine and timberline zones from west-central British Columbia east to west-central Alberta and south to central Idaho, southwestern Wyoming, and southern California (Murray, 2005; Ward et al., 2006). ABBREVIATION: PINFLE SYNONYMS: No entry NRCS PLANT CODE [115]: PIFL2 COMM… The whitebark pine is an important source of food for many granivorous birds and small mammals, including most importantly the Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), the major seed disperser of the pine. The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) is one of the last remaining large, nearly intact ecosystems in the northern temperate zone of the Earth. REFERENCES : 1.Arno, Stephen F. 1980. U.S. Forest Service Proceedings R6-NR-FHP-2007-01. Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium. Restoration efforts undertaken by the U.S. Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, and National Park Service in the northern Rocky Mountains involve harvesting cones from potentially and known resistant whitebark pines, growing seedlings, and outplanting seedlings in suitable sites. We, the U.S. A very healthy, all-aged stand of trees in Paintbrush Canyon, Grand Teton National Park [C.J. The fresh-cut wood of Pinus albicaulis is sweet-scented. However, a small number of trees (fewer than 5%) in most populations harbor genetic resistance to blister rust. (2017) note that recent severe decline of whitebark pine forests has happened in response to the combined effects of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, fire exclusion policies, and white pine blister rust. Distribution. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) can also be hard to distinguish from the western white pine (Pinus monticola) in the absence of cones. In the northern Rocky Mountains of the United States, whitebark pine mortality in some areas exceeds 90 percent, where the disease infests nearly 143,000 acres (580 km2). It has a Evolutionary Distinctiveness of 3.58, ranked 922. Pollen cones and foliage, Wallowa Mountains, Oregon [C.J. These differences can be seen without a trip to the field, if you study lots of photos at the iNaturalist pages for these three species. Arno, Stephen F. and Ramona Hammerly. A. Hicke, H. K. Preisler, J. T. Abatzoglou, K. F. Raffa, and J. Please use the State … Jepson eFlora Author: J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange) Previous taxon: Pinus Next taxon: Pinus attenuata. ID 63908 Symbol Key PIAL Common Name whitebark pine Family Pinaceae Category Gymnosperm Division Coniferophyta US Nativity Native to U.S. US/NA Plant Yes State Distribution CA, ID, MT, NV, OR, WA, WY Growth Habit Tree Botanical illustration including Pinus albicaulis. Nearly 80 percent of whitebark pines in Mount Rainier National Park are infected with blister rust.[6]. Its seeds are an important food for grizzly bears and other wildlife of the high mountains. Pinus albicaulis Name Synonyms Apinus albicaulis (Engelm.) 1990). Pests and Pathogens from Calinvasives Siskiyou Buds ovoid, light red-brown, 0.8-1 cm; scale margins entire. 1996). In Pinus flexilis, the cones are 6–12 centimeters (2 1⁄2–4 1⁄2 in) long, green when immature, and open to release the seeds; the scales are not fragile. Discussion. Distribution. However, the beetles have recently expanded their attacks to younger, healthier trees as well as older trees, and climate change has been implicated as the primary culprit. [14], Native Americans are known to eat the seeds from the cones of this tree. Cache sites selected by nutcrackers are often favorable for germination of seeds and survival of seedlings. Climate change, however, is a substantial threat to the species. Extremely long lived and slow growing, Whitebark pine takes 200 years to reach maturity and may live to 500 years. Pinus albicaulis. Belongs to subsection Cembra, the stone pines, so called for their large, wingless seeds. Evergreen monoecious trees to 21 m tall and 150 cm DBH, usually single-trunked, initially with a conical crown, markedly rounded to irregular (the round crown, when present, distinguishes this species even at a considerable distance). Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. Habitat: Generally near timberline, preferring south-facing slopes. 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