Algae exhibit haplontic life cycle or diplontic life cycle, haplodiplontic life cycle, haplobiontic life cycle and diplobiontic life cycle. They are known as acellular or non-cellular organism. Maitreyi College, University of Delhi for the hand diagrams. This microalgae also contains chlorophyll and other vegetal pigments that help … Not logged in The algal cell wall is made up of cellulose. Ann Bot (NS) 27:353–355, Fritsch FE (1935) The structure and reproduction of algae, vol I. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Fritsch FE (1945) Present day classification of algae. Reproduction and Life History Patterns III. General Characteristics of Algae. The motile vegetative cells, zoospores and gametes of algae (except the class Rhodophyceae and Cyanophyacae) show a pair of flagella. A single endosymbiosis appears to have occurred in the green algae, the red algae and the glaucocystophytes. Some of the algae are also found as terrestrial, subterranean or epiphytic forms. Tata Mc Graw Hill Education Private Limited, New Delhi, South GR, Whittick A (1987) Introduction to phycology. All the very best from Team Studyandscore, Amisha Sharma Algae are photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. They are either motile or non-motile. They are acellular, that is, they contain no cytoplasm or cellular organelles. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Sharma OP (2011) Algae. They are chlorophyllous thus autotrophic, with simple thallus and lacks tissue differentiation. They can exist singly or in colonies like the Volvox or may be unicellular like Chlamydomonas or may even have a filamentous structure like Spirogyra and Ulothrix. It was cyanobacteria in the Archaean and Proterozoic Eras (2.7 billion years ago) that were Their main reserve food material is starch. In general, the brown algae flourish in colder ocean waters and on rocky coasts, where they grow attached in intertidal or … Listed below are some of the general characteristics of algae. Blackwell Science Publication, Oxford, Vashishta BR, Sinha AK, Singh VP (2007) Botany for degree students: Part – I – Algae. Photosynthetic Pigments IV. Algae are simple, chlorophyll bearing and photosynthetic non vascular plants whose body is a simple thallus without differentiation into roots, stems and leaves. As algae possess chlorophyll, they are photosynthetic in nature. They reproduce at a fantastic rate, but only in living host cells. 3. Algae show progressive evolution in sexuality. 1. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. They are commonly found in aquatic environments including freshwater, marine and brackish water. Cyanobacteria: characteristics and life history Cyanobacteria are a critical component of the Earh’s biosphere and are largely responsible for life as we know it. They occur both in marine and fresh water habitats. As they are diverse in structure and habitat there is a lot of diversity in their reproduction and perennation strategies. Plantae - Plant Kingdom, Algae – Thallophytes: Green Algae, Brown Algae, Red Algae, Uses of algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Cryptogamae. 2. What is moss and general characteristics, classification, habitat, reproduction and usefulness for human Moss is a group of epiphytic plants found mostly in tree trunks, dead wood, decayed wood, soil, or rocks, with humid environmental conditions and adequate irradiation. Parasites Endoparasite Ectoparasite Protozoa Metazoa Arthropods . Fungi have enormous ecological, economic and practical uses; o Ecological= fungi are essential decomposers; mycorrhizae increase plant growth. Thomas Nelson and Son, London, Round FE (1973) The biology of the algae, 2nd edn. We have loaded Previous years questions with explanations...for all competitive exams. They grow attached to the rocks, shells, or coarser algae such as the kelps. In: Cox ER (ed) Phytoflagellates. Characteristics of Phaeophyta. Fungi – General characteristics • Mycology – myco, myce • Eukaryotic, aerobic • Heterotrophic – Complex nutritional requirements • Nutritional sources –Saprophytic • Decomposers – Opportunistic parasites •Host is usually compromised Namely Carotenes and Xanthophylls. Schmitz (Ceramiaceae: Rhodophyta) at its northern limits in the western Atlantic. Ecologically, algae are Algae are Eukaryotic, autotrophic and usually aquatic thallophytes. Kingdom: Protista. •The current systems of classification of algae are based on the following main criteria: o kinds of photosynthetic pigments, o type or chemical nature of photosynthetic energy storage products o photosynthetic membranes’ (thylakoids) organization and other features of the chloroplasts. Please share it with your friends through below links. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Lee RE (2008) Phycology, 4th edn. General Characteristics of phylum Protozoa. Occurrence of Algae: 1. The major groups of algae are therefore related to the type of protist host and the type of plastid, and these are described. The genome structures within Chlorophyta are all different. They are found in different habitats from fresh to marine waters to extreme conditions. The members of this division are commonly called brown algae because of dominant carotene and fucoxanthin, The brown algae are widespread and with few exceptions all are marine. Algae possess the usual eukaryotic structures - Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, Endoplasmic reticulum and a nucleus. Protozoa are notable for their ability to move independently, a characteristic found in the majority of species. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, The Algae World Algal cells have chloroplasts or chromatophores with photosynthetic pigments. Lecture ‐3‐ Chlorophyta. Chloroplast types V. Major Polysaccharide Reserves VI. Algae are autotrophic and synthesize their own food. Lack of flagella and centrioles; Presence of photosynthetic pigments; Found both in marine and freshwater; They … Bacillariophyceae and Xanthophyceae stores leucosin. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Algae a ubiquitous and diverse group ranges from unicellular to giant multicellular forms. The thallus of algae shows great degree of variation in size and form. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 29:223–230, © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015,, Marine Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany,, Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology. General characteristics of algae 1. Please be patient for few seconds to load the PPT preview…. Not affiliated // . General Characteristics II. Algae a ubiquitous and diverse group ranges from unicellular to giant multicellular forms. In most groups of algae it appears that the plastid has been derived by at least two serial endosymbioses. Algae – General Characteristics “The life of the planet began the long, slow process of modulating and regulating the physical conditions of the planet. They are two types namely, Phycocyanin and Phycoerythrin. Some are unicellular eg. The term thallus is used for a plant body that is not differentiated into root stem and leaves and lacks vascular system. o the presence or absence of flagella (as well as the number and Royal Society, London. General Characteristics of Red Algae. Unicellular algae occur most frequently in water, especially in plankton. Describe the general characteristics of algae in terms of life cycle, distribu-tion and structure. The oxygen in today’s atmosphere is almost entirely the result of photosynthetic living, which had its start with the appearance of blue-green algae … The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch ® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. They are usually aquatic. PhD thesis. [CDATA[ Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 133–193, Whittick A (1977) The reproductive ecology of Plumaria elegans (Bonnem.) // ]]>. Algae have simple, unicellular non-jacketed sex organs and have no embryo development. They are Thallophytes which have chlorophyll as their primary photosynthetic pigment and lack a sterile covering of cells around the reproductive cells. Elsevier/North Holland, New York, pp 213–242, Prescott GW (1969) The algae: a review. Terrestrial Algae: Some algae are found to grow in terrestrial habitats like soils,’ rocks, logs etc. The word algae represent a large group of different organisms from different phylogenetic groups, representing many taxonomic divisions. However, different algae store different food material. o Economic/Practical= antibiotics and food (making bleu cheese/ truffles and truffle hunting). }); General characteristics of algae, Classification of algae based on habitat, Thallus diversity in algae, Chloroplast shape variations in algae, Pigmentation in algae, Reproduction in algae, Life cycle in algae. In general algae can be referred to as plant-like organisms that are usually photosynthetic and aquatic, but do not have true roots, stems, leaves, vascular tissue and have simple reproductive structures. Keshav Narayan Pai Msc I Department of Botany 2. This is a preview of subscription content, Baweja P (2006) Structure and reproduction of Grateloupia lithophila and its evaluation of commercial importance along with Gratelopia filicana as a source of food and carrageenan. on Sep 25, 2018 at 06:22 am, Previous years questions with explanations...for all competitive exams. Algae are Eukaryotic, autotrophic and usually aquatic thallophytes. Phycobilins: These are water soluble pigments. They can mutate. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Algae are photosynthetic organisms; Algae can be either unicellular or multicellular organisms; Algae lack a well-defined body, so, structures like roots, stems or leaves are absent; Algaes are found where there is adequate moisture. pp 3-29 | The organization of their thallus is either unicellular or multicellular. Red algae are different from other groups except for diatoms. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({ Bot Rev 10:233, John DM, Whitton BA, Brook AJ (2002) The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles with DVD-ROM: an identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial. Cite as. Phaeophyceae stores laminarin or mannitol. Algae - Algae - Classification of algae: The classification of algae into taxonomic groups is based upon the same rules that are used for the classification of land plants, but the organization of groups of algae above the order level has changed substantially since 1960. Listed below are general characteristics of Red Algae. Algae are the simplest multicellular plants. [CDATA[ Asexual reproduction takes place by zoospores, aplanospores, endospores, harmagonia and auxospores etc. o Lichens consist of algae or cyanobacteria (protists or bacteria) within a fungal network. S. Chand & Company Limited, New Delhi, West JA, Hommersand MH (1981) Rhodophyta: life histories. Many algae consist of only one cell, while the largest have millions of cells. Algae - Algae - Physical and ecological features of algae: The size range of the algae spans seven orders of magnitude. Chlorophylls: They may be of five types. Algae are eukaryotic organisms that have no roots, stems, or leaves but do have chlorophyll and other pigments for carrying out photosynthesis. Peinaar RN (1980) Chrysophytes. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. 3. 1.2 ChARACtERIStICS Filamentous algae and seaweeds have an extremely wide panorama of environmental requirements, which vary according to species and location. Eukaryotic Algae I. Pant body: known as Thallus and they are avascular. You can DOWNLOAD the PPT by clicking on the download link below the preview…. As algae possess chlorophyll, they are photosynthetic in nature. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. These algae are characterized by a siphonous or coenocytic construction, consisting of tubular filaments lacking transverse cell walls. Part of Springer Nature. GENERAL CHARACTERSTICS OF ALGAE. The unique feature of algae is the ability to perform photosynthesis. Like and Follow us on Facebook and Telegram for latest updates... //